Cross section of spherical universe:


New Science rant
 (or thinking about plausible explanations for the evolution of our universe out loud)

Note: This is a continuing work in progress, so there will be changes, corrections and additions as time goes on

Schwarzschild radius, also called the event horizon, Rs = (1.48 x 10-27) times M.
1.59 e55 kg = mass of universe
9 trillion km = 1 light year











2,496,053,277,857 ly (2.5 trillion light years). What is the significance of this number? Unless/until our universe is bigger than a 2.5Tly radius, based upon its mass, don't we technically exist within a black hole?


If our universe was a singularity at what we view as its beginning.
If the mass of our universe matches something approaching this calculation: "Total Mass of the Universe within x0: Mu = x02a0/G = 1.59486 × 1055 kg".

​Seems that we do, but perhaps a better way to put this would be "we live within the event horizon of what used to be a singularity".

Would this mean that due to the singularity’s event horizon (as calculated above), there could have been nothing else within 2,496,053,277,857 ly (2.5 trillion light years) of what became our universe, at the time of the start of its expansion? 

766B parsecs (3.26156375 ly = 1 parsec)

Is this 2.5Tly radius, the full realm of our universe?

Note: cosmological horizon is 4.1 parsecs (13.84bly)

If universe is indeed currently around 94 Bly across (47Bly in radius), does this mean that through dividing this radius by the currently accepted age of the universe (13.8By), we can calculate the radius of how much of the evolution of the universe still remains observable in the direction of the location of the source singularity (3.406By)? As our galaxy was formed 800Mly after the beginning of the expansion, this number would need adjustment for that condition.  Also would mean that our visibility into the portion of the universe which was created prior to us would be something in the neighborhood of 3Bly.  This would seem to mean in total that we currently only have a view of 3.4By (after formation of Milky Way) + 800My (before), for a total of about 1/3 of the matter & energy which were created during the first 4.2By of our universe's evolution.

Further if the 47Bly radius is somewhere near correct and the cosmological constant has some validity (likely would need adjustment for expansion within a sphere), currently our universe would be less than 2% (and accelerating) of the way to its original event horizon?  We have no idea if this current expansion is just a phase and at some point, due to the physical laws of our universe, it will begin collapsing back in on itself. 


Isn’t the expansion of our universe, the introduction of more space between stellar objects? If expansion of our universe (Hubble tension) is occurring at rates projected for beginning and current universe, doesn’t it make sense that our universe is expanding in a spherical form? Couldn’t being pushed outward (inflating) into a sphere emptied of matter by gravity produce this effect?

Based upon all of the above, it seems that the increasing rate of inflation within our universe should come as no surprise. As the universe expands (introduction of more space as the boundaries are pushed outward by actions at the core), the more space is created between cosmic entities.  The further out these entities and the boundary is pushed, the greater that space becomes.  (Additionally the more gravity within our universe is diluted due to the expanded area.

Notes:

We exist within an ever-changing matter-energy-space continuum.  


Missing dark energy/matter or a singularity which continues to function as the beating heart of a universe? 


The universe moves and everything in it moves. The velocity at which objects move define their perspective. Would seem our universe currently is a constantly expanding orb of cosmic threads than a flat or curved sheet of time/space caused by a single massive cosmic bubble. The paradox of the Hubble constant seems to support such a model. 

When we look out into the universe, we must keep in mind that we are neither seeing the universe as it was nor as it is. What we are seeing are radiated images of what cosmic objects were at a variety of points in the past.

Universes within universes (blackholes within blackholes)?


Matter, energy & space are the ingredients of our universe. Matter provides the universe with substance. Energy powers the universe. Space provides the universe with depth. Matter both produces and absorbs energy. Energy transforms matter creating space. Space defines both matter and energy. All else is human interpretation. 


Is CMB at frequency in our sector of the universe which allows it to be bounced around endlessly?


Every unique particle of our being was created from the “atomic soup” produced after CMB appeared.


How long did it take the singularity which spawned our universe to compress into an object smaller than 1km³ ?  Is the singularity still unraveling from that compression? 


​A black hole has an event horizon within which the singularity resides. Seems that singularity (+ whatever material is pulled in) may continue to compress through its internal gravitational forces until it can compress no further.  At the point, is it possible what we term the "Great Expansion" begins?  In the case of our universe, the original singularity was not a small mass which suddenly became unstable, it was an unimaginably tightly compressed titanic mass. Would seem there would be degrees of difference in the pressures on the outer layers of that mass as compared to those lying within the core (same as with all heavenly bodies). The present theory is that the entire singularity abruptly expanded at once. Seems a better chance the singularity peeled its outer layers off first (something like an onion) which began the processes creating the matter/energy we observe today. Further, it's entirely possible that what remains of that singularly is still shedding layers which then causes the existing matter/energy to be pushed further out toward the event horizon. 


Currently the material boundaries of our universe are calculated to be something like 94 Bly across. This is the equivalent of our sun being about 865km in diameter. The boundaries of the universe are expanding at an exponential rate.  At present, we view objects to 13.8Bly and calculate that they now reside 46Bly away. Meaning we now receive radiation from less than ⅓ of the universe (and this is only going to decrease further due to cosmic expansion).


We can speculate that our universe has an internal gravitational sphere of influence of around 2.5Tly based on the calculation above for event horizon.


If galactic clusters are indeed accelerating away from each other at increasing velocity, one plausible explanation would be that some force is pushing those clusters further outward in a spherical fashion into unoccupied space.


SN1054, which created the Crab Nebula, is thought to be 6.5Kly from Earth. SN1054 was observed to have gone supernova in 1054AD. This does not mean the event occurred at that exact time. If estimated distance to SN1054 is correct, the supernova happened around 5500BC (in our current time account system), as the image of that event took 6,500 years to arrive. When we look out into the heavens (or anywhere else for that matter), what we observe is a light projection from the past of an event which has already taken place. (Not going to go any into my 25-year-old diatribe about time not being an actual thing which impacts our universe. In my opinion, time is simply one of the measurements of an ever evolving universe and remains an arbitrary human contrivance) 

There is a whole lot of missing dark matter/energy in our universe which we have not been able to locate. Does that dark matter/energy still reside in the core of what was the singularity which spawned our universe?

Have come to feel that the sentiment “the universe may only be understood mathematically” is flawed. (Don’t get me wrong, as I firmly believe that mathematics is one of humanity's most important disciplines). Mathematics attempts to quantify a universe which is constantly changing. This works fine in many situations, but am unsure that it serves well in understanding true nature of the past, present or future of the universe or other entities. Have also begun to suspect that the need to address the changed/changing nature of our universe (accurate rate of expansion) is what Einstein knew was the missing. 

The space beyond the physical boundaries of our universe is the great flexible nothing which propagates gravity. Gravity is a gradated, four dimensional force generated by matter which can transit space.
There are various ways for larger collections of matter to move:

  1. being propelled to move from one point to another
  2. being forced by gravity to move toward the material source of gravitational attraction
  3. reducing/eliminating the space between origin and destination points

The generation of gravitational force is an inherent feature of matter. Perhaps the search for “anti-gravity” is a misguided quest and the quest should be controlling gravitational force to eliminate space?


One of the forces that opposes gravity is star formation.


​Studying the voids and the Great Attractor may be keys to unlocking our location within the universe. The poles of the sun and the planets may well be natural compasses with what we classify as north poles pointing toward free space and south poles pointing toward our universe’s core.


Our universe is not driven onward by time. Our universe is driven onward by inertia, configuration & conditions.


Existence continues to be a series of causal effects driven by the ongoing expansion of our universe.


How humans think the universe operates has absolutely no impact on how the universe does operate.​

Speculations:

If our universe was indeed a black hole/singularity at what we term its beginning, there must be some reason that it burst into expansion when it did. Perhaps because all that could be absorbed by our singularity had been absorbed. Perhaps because our singularity had reached a particular density/mass which causes such a reaction. Perhaps because of other factors or both factors. In any case, it seems as if we & our universe exist within the parameters of what used to be a blackhole.  Whether that singularity was the totality of existence or simply another singularity within the totality remains unanswerable. 

Seems what we are able to determine, being within the singularity which we classify as our universe, is what occurs in a singularity after it reaches maximum density. Black holes, like all else in the cosmos, having their own evolutionary path.


Based upon the conditions (primarily gravity/temperature), within an area of stellar formation, when matter forms into an entity, based upon the mass of that entity, the object created either becomes a black hole/neutron star, varying class of energy producing star, planet, satellite object or floats onward until able to connect with other cosmic dust/debris to form objects. Evolution (based upon created object’s conditions) then takes care of the future.

We exist within a constantly changing, condition driven, matter, energy & space continuum. There is energy and there are material objects. Material entities have spheres of influence beyond their material boundaries.  These influences may be gravity, magnetism, and the fields of the energy which they radiate. Material entities are also capable of creating their own physical rules for what lies within their material boundaries. These rules are determined by the physical structures of the material entity. These rules can be very different based upon the material entity. The universe is a material entity.  Stars are material entities. Black Holes are material entities. Planets, etc. are material entities. People are material entities. Whether matter or energy, each aspect/entity within existence is unique. 


As all else within existence appears to be a matter of conditions and configuration of matter & energy, was the state of the singularity which spawned our universe the result of density/temperature being at the right stage to turn it into a matter/energy creating engine?


Not factoring in the non-linear expansion of the universe into our distance calculations for cosmic objects outside our portion of the galaxy seems a mistake.

Our reasoning (based on CMB) that the universe is flat seems at odds with most of what we find within our universe. Cosmic material objects are generally some type of sphere. When you get into galaxies & clusters, which are material objects + a whole lot of energized space, disk type structures seem the norm, but all of this is still a matter of the physical rules imposed primarily by gravity of the overall universe.  Perhaps we aren’t looking at this from the proper perspective. My assumption built from most of current science saying that the universe is flat, only means that the universe (and all radiated within it) continues to expand in a straight line in every direction. This would make sense if the original realm of our universe is indeed something around 2.5Tly and our universe is now less than 2% of the distance to that horizon. 

If this limit of our universe is correct, what if anything lies beyond those limits is currently (and most likely will be for a long time) unknowable. 

That our universe has black holes within it, suggests however, that the totality of existence may well be universes within universes. Unfortunately, black holes seem to be one the most slowly evolving cosmic entities, in addition to totally absorbing anything which travels to its event horizon. This makes study of black holes particularly difficult.

Still wondering if my studying the Bootes Void may end up being one of the keys to unlocking the current boundaries/form of our universe.  


As of August 2023, Voyager 1 has traveled only .0024ly into space. Unless/until there is some breakthrough in accelerating matter, we should understand that the human future is consigned to our solar system.

Black holes also prove that physical rules are subject to the constraints of material configurations. Under normal circumstances, the transmission of energy within our universe is little impacted by gravity. Black holes prove that there is a (Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff) limit of around 2.17 sun masses in a little more than 6.4km radius, before a singularity begins gravitationally impacting energy waves.  Likely this limit (if accurate) may go a long way toward refining our understanding of gravity. The notion that energy particles have no mass is rejected by the gravitational impact of the singularity as proven by gravitational lensing in The Einstein Cross (G2237+0305}. 

Based upon what has occurred within the generation of our universe from a singularity, it would seem that there is a finite limit as to how tightly matter may compress itself before it starts expanding (creating space). Is there a possibility that there is also a limit as to how far energy can dilute itself before it must start compressing? (Keep in mind that matter/energy can be interchangeable).

Currently science believes that our galaxy began to be formed as long ago as 13 billion years. Considering our universe is estimated as being around 13.8 billion years old and the dark ages of our universe did not fully end until somewhere around 1Billion years after the initial expansion of the singularity, this is very early in our universe’s history. Most of science seems to believe that the formation of cosmic entities occurred during a consistent age of our universe, but are we misleading ourselves? Star formations do not begin to occur when temperatures are in excess of 4000K. Were conditions generally consistent throughout the universe after these dark ages? As the universe was at least 3Bly across at this point, seems a big leap of faith. From what little we can tell, conditions within our universe after the expansion have not been consistent, why would they have been consistent then?  

Is it possible that as we are within a galaxy formed early on and we reside on the outer portion of the structure of our universe?  Is it possible that deeper within the core of what was our universe at the end of this designated dark ages, lies a massive remnant (the universe’s missing dark matter/energy) of the “hot mess” which began producing gigantic stellar objects and this continuing production of such objects is what is pushing ours/other galaxies further out toward what was the event horizon of the original singularity? 


That our universe appears to be expanding (or at least the space surrounding cosmic objects is expanding) strengthens my views that:

  1. Our universe is of some sort of spherical form which would explain an increase in space (without impact on material cosmic entities dimensions) as the universe expands outward.
  2. Some force (what’s now being called by science as dark energy), is pushing us outward toward the boundary of what was once (and may well still be) our universe’s event horizon.


Summary of speculation:

  • We exist within the shell of a blackhole which had an event horizon radius of 2.5Tly.
  • A process from the remaining core of our singularity continues to push us outward.
  • Considering singularities lie at the core of most galaxies, they appear to be the engines of universes.
  • The universe is less than 5% of the distance to the original event horizon.
  • There may be something wrong with our understanding of the distribution of CMB.
  • The structure of our universe is some form of a sphere.
  • What’s termed the Big Bang/Great Expansion only applies to our general portion of the universe. The dark matter/energy source continues to create new matter in the same fashion and expand what has previously been produced further into unoccupied space.
  • As long as all of the above remains valid, what we can observe of the rest of the universe will continue to shrink.


If there is validity to these speculations, we should be able to discover:

  1. our location within the universe
  2. the distance to center of the remaining unexpanded core of the singularity
  3. more about the nature of blackholes, including that Hawking radiation is not the ultimate demise for all classified as such
  4. expand our theories on the future of our galaxy (+ those galaxies nearby) as well as our universe
  5. the true value of a cosmological constant ( Λ ) based on the (likely variable) rate which the core is causing expansion plus the position of the entity with respect to boundaries with free space


If our universe is not the only structure within the totality of existence, it must exist within a broader metaverse. A metaverse which may have some impact upon how our universe functions. My inclination is to believe that the totality of existence is vastly greater than our universe. All of which is pure speculation, for it does not seem humanly possible to verify this aspect of our universe either now or in the foreseeable future.


This drags me back into my pet peeve that time is often treated as an actual force and that all of the universe must obey the same timeline, forgetting that every object in this universe is a product of its own & surrounding conditions. Time is a concept, not a physical entity.  The concept of time is a tool which humans use to mark and measure conditions. Changing conditions are what drive both us and our universe.


If the conditions of the singularity from which our universe arose in a post-1Bly universe have continued to be as a matter/energy producing engine, there is a good chance that the 20th Century view of the evolution of our universe is in error. 


Do we exist within the remnant of the event horizon of an unimaginably old black hole?
(the goal is not to establish scientific fact, but rather to encourage new ways of scientific thinking)